The page contains a heading, skip link, or landmark region

Adding ways to bypass repetitive content lets keyboard users navigate the page more efficiently. Learn more.

bypass
accessibility

Background and foreground colors have a sufficient contrast ratio

Low-contrast text is difficult or impossible for many users to read. Learn more.

color-contrast
accessibility

Document has a <title> element

The title gives screen reader users an overview of the page, and search engine users rely on it heavily to determine if a page is relevant to their search. Learn more.

document-title
accessibility

[id] attributes on the page are unique

The value of an id attribute must be unique to prevent other instances from being overlooked by assistive technologies. Learn more.

duplicate-id
accessibility

<html> element has a [lang] attribute

If a page doesn't specify a lang attribute, a screen reader assumes that the page is in the default language that the user chose when setting up the screen reader. If the page isn't actually in the default language, then the screen reader might not announce the page's text correctly. Learn more.

html-has-lang
accessibility

<html> element has a valid value for its [lang] attribute

Specifying a valid BCP 47 language helps screen readers announce text properly. Learn more.

html-lang-valid
accessibility

Links have a discernible name

Link text (and alternate text for images, when used as links) that is discernible, unique, and focusable improves the navigation experience for screen reader users. Learn more.

link-name
accessibility

Lists contain only <li> elements and script supporting elements (<script> and <template>).

Screen readers have a specific way of announcing lists. Ensuring proper list structure aids screen reader output. Learn more.

list
accessibility

List items (<li>) are contained within <ul> or <ol> parent elements

Screen readers require list items (<li>) to be contained within a parent <ul> or <ol> to be announced properly. Learn more.

listitem
accessibility

[user-scalable="no"] is not used in the <meta name="viewport"> element and the [maximum-scale] attribute is not less than 5.

Disabling zooming is problematic for users with low vision who rely on screen magnification to properly see the contents of a web page. Learn more.

meta-viewport
accessibility

[accesskey] values are unique

Access keys let users quickly focus a part of the page. For proper navigation, each access key must be unique. Learn more.

accesskeys
accessibility

[aria-*] attributes match their roles

Each ARIA role supports a specific subset of aria-* attributes. Mismatching these invalidates the aria-* attributes. Learn more.

aria-allowed-attr
accessibility

[role]s have all required [aria-*] attributes

Some ARIA roles have required attributes that describe the state of the element to screen readers. Learn more.

aria-required-attr
accessibility

Elements with [role] that require specific children [role]s, are present

Some ARIA parent roles must contain specific child roles to perform their intended accessibility functions. Learn more.

aria-required-children
accessibility

[role]s are contained by their required parent element

Some ARIA child roles must be contained by specific parent roles to properly perform their intended accessibility functions. Learn more.

aria-required-parent
accessibility

[role] values are valid

ARIA roles must have valid values in order to perform their intended accessibility functions. Learn more.

aria-roles
accessibility

[aria-*] attributes have valid values

Assistive technologies, like screen readers, can't interpret ARIA attributes with invalid values. Learn more.

aria-valid-attr-value
accessibility

[aria-*] attributes have valid values

Assistive technologies, like screen readers, can't interpret ARIA attributes with invalid values. Learn more.

aria-valid-attr
accessibility

<audio> elements contain a <track> element with [kind="captions"]

Captions make audio elements usable for deaf or hearing-impaired users, providing critical information such as who is talking, what they're saying, and other non-speech information. Learn more.

audio-caption
accessibility

Buttons have an accessible name

When a button doesn't have an accessible name, screen readers announce it as "button", making it unusable for users who rely on screen readers. Learn more.

button-name
accessibility

<dl>'s contain only properly-ordered <dt> and <dd> groups, <script> or <template> elements.

When definition lists are not properly marked up, screen readers may produce confusing or inaccurate output. Learn more.

definition-list
accessibility

Definition list items are wrapped in <dl> elements

Definition list items (<dt> and <dd>) must be wrapped in a parent <dl> element to ensure that screen readers can properly announce them. Learn more.

dlitem
accessibility

<frame> or <iframe> elements have a title

Screen reader users rely on frame titles to describe the contents of frames. Learn more.

frame-title
accessibility

Image elements have [alt] attributes

Informative elements should aim for short, descriptive alternate text. Decorative elements can be ignored with an empty alt attribute. Learn more.

image-alt
accessibility

<input type="image"> elements have [alt] text

When an image is being used as an <input> button, providing alternative text can help screen reader users understand the purpose of the button. Learn more.

input-image-alt
accessibility

Form elements have associated labels

Labels ensure that form controls are announced properly by assistive technologies, like screen readers. Learn more.

label
accessibility

Presentational <table> elements avoid using <th>, <caption> or the [summary] attribute.

A table being used for layout purposes should not include data elements, such as the th or caption elements or the summary attribute, because this can create a confusing experience for screen reader users. Learn more.

layout-table
accessibility

The document does not use <meta http-equiv="refresh">

Users do not expect a page to refresh automatically, and doing so will move focus back to the top of the page. This may create a frustrating or confusing experience. Learn more.

meta-refresh
accessibility

<object> elements have [alt] text

Screen readers cannot translate non-text content. Adding alt text to <object> elements helps screen readers convey meaning to users. Learn more.

object-alt
accessibility

No element has a [tabindex] value greater than 0

A value greater than 0 implies an explicit navigation ordering. Although technically valid, this often creates frustrating experiences for users who rely on assistive technologies. Learn more.

tabindex
accessibility

Cells in a <table> element that use the [headers] attribute only refer to other cells of that same table.

Screen readers have features to make navigating tables easier. Ensuring <td> cells using the [headers] attribute only refer to other cells in the same table may improve the experience for screen reader users. Learn more.

td-headers-attr
accessibility

<th> elements and elements with [role="columnheader"/"rowheader"] have data cells they describe.

Screen readers have features to make navigating tables easier. Ensuring table headers always refer to some set of cells may improve the experience for screen reader users. Learn more.

th-has-data-cells
accessibility

[lang] attributes have a valid value

Specifying a valid BCP 47 language on elements helps ensure that text is pronounced correctly by a screen reader. Learn more.

valid-lang
accessibility

<video> elements contain a <track> element with [kind="captions"]

When a video provides a caption it is easier for deaf and hearing impaired users to access its information. Learn more.

video-caption
accessibility

<video> elements contain a <track> element with [kind="description"]

Audio descriptions provide relevant information for videos that dialogue cannot, such as facial expressions and scenes. Learn more.

video-description
accessibility

The page has a logical tab order

Tabbing through the page follows the visual layout. Users cannot focus elements that are offscreen. Learn more.

logical-tab-order
accessibility

Interactive controls are keyboard focusable

Custom interactive controls are keyboard focusable and display a focus indicator. Learn more.

focusable-controls
accessibility

Interactive elements indicate their purpose and state

Interactive elements, such as links and buttons, should indicate their state and be distinguishable from non-interactive elements. Learn more.

interactive-element-affordance
accessibility

The user's focus is directed to new content added to the page

If new content, such as a dialog, is added to the page, the user's focus is directed to it. Learn more.

managed-focus
accessibility

User focus is not accidentally trapped in a region

A user can tab into and out of any control or region without accidentally trapping their focus. Learn more.

focus-traps
accessibility

Custom controls have associated labels

Custom interactive controls have associated labels, provided by aria-label or aria-labelledby. Learn more.

custom-controls-labels
accessibility

Custom controls have ARIA roles

Custom interactive controls have appropriate ARIA roles. Learn more.

custom-controls-roles
accessibility

Visual order on the page follows DOM order

DOM order matches the visual order, improving navigation for assistive technology. Learn more.

visual-order-follows-dom
accessibility

Offscreen content is hidden from assistive technology

Offscreen content is hidden with display: none or aria-hidden=true. Learn more.

offscreen-content-hidden
accessibility

Headings don't skip levels

Headings are used to create an outline for the page and heading levels are not skipped. Learn more.

heading-levels
accessibility

HTML5 landmark elements are used to improve navigation

Landmark elements (

,
Accessibility
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